martes, 23 de abril de 2019

OMS World Health Statistics 2019

This report highlighted some important findings, even though more work is needed for a better understanding of the factors influencing risk behaviours, access to services and health outcomes. The largest disparities in life expectancy – and values of SDG indicators – occur when comparing country groupings such as World Bank income groups. Differences in the values of life expectancy and SDG indicators between men and women are generally smaller. Nevertheless, failure to address these differences will allow inequities to persist and could jeopardize the attainment of the SDGs. Some key areas to address are as follows:
  •   Under-5 mortality rates are generally higher in boys than girls owing to a greater biological frailty in boys. However, in some populations rates are similar or equal between boys and girls, which is indicative of avoidable mortality among female children. 
  •  In low-income countries, maternal deaths contribute more than any other single cause to differences in life expectancy between men and women. Such deaths rarely occur in upper-middle- and high-income countries. Cervical cancer is also concentrated in low- and lower- middle-income countries. 
  •  Men have a lower life expectancy than women, owing to higher death rates in men from multiple causes, especially CVD, road injuries, lung cancers, COPD and stroke. 
  •  Men have greater exposure to some risk factors for NCDs, such as tobacco use and alcohol consumption. 
  •  In many settings, men use health services less than women, even after taking into account reproductive- related consultations. For some infectious diseases, such as HIV and TB, men’s later diagnosis and treatment is responsible for a greater number of secondary infections. 
  •  Women are the major contributors to the delivery of health services, but are more likely to be in caring roles (often unpaid) and less likely to be employed as doctors or managers. 

For some conditions, particularly in low-income countries, premature deaths can be averted by improving use of basic preventive and curative health services. For example, maternal deaths can be reduced by ensuring that women have access to high-quality care before, during and after childbirth, and access to modern methods of contraception. Treatment for high blood pressure can reduce the incidence of CVD. 

There is often scope to increase the supply of health services, but it may also be necessary to address barriers to using those services; for example, gender-related barriers that prevent women from accessing maternal health services and making autonomous reproductive decisions. It may also be necessary to address norms in which men’s health seeking is seen as a sign of weakness, and to consider differences in how diseases manifest and present in women and men, to improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment. 

While mortality and morbidity rates can be reduced through health care, the health of populations can also be improved by reducing exposure to risk factors such as unsafe water and sanitation, air pollution, violence, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Both men and women could benefit from more specific targeting of behavioural and legislative interventions to their needs, to reduce exposure to harmful practices and mitigate their consequences. 

Sex disaggregation of global values of SDG indicators is currently possible in just 11 of the 28 indicators where it may be of interest. Gaps in data must be addressed, because they compromise efforts to accurately monitor changes in health status and progress towards SDGs.(Ver y descargar)

No hay comentarios: