viernes, 19 de julio de 2024

Ratón de biblioteca: Epopeya farmacéutica / Luis Marcos Nogales




 

Lo que realmente diferencia al ser humano del resto de especies es su gusto por los fármacos. En este valle de lágrimas repleto de plantas y animales domesticables, surgieron culturas y civilizaciones que desarrollaron con afición el noble arte de la farmacia. Tras la revolución neolítica se empezaron a fraguar grandes estados e imperios, aumentando así, los dolores de cabeza. Pero no importó, pues chamanes, brujos, médicos, sacerdotes, boticarios y/o magos, buscaron y algunas veces encontraron, remedios con los que aliviar la jaqueca y muchos otros males de índole diversa. Tras probar esta Epopeya farmacéutica te sentirás mejor. Tienes a tu alcance de manera completamente legal, un reposado, aunque también vertiginoso viaje: desde el edén silvestre prehistórico hasta la Roma marmórea y mamotreta, pasando por Mesopotamia, Egipto, la India, China, América, Persia o Grecia. Y todo administrado por vía visual, en un trabajado ungüento de panacea literaria aderezado con grageas de humor comprimido en viñetas. 

 Luis Marcos Nogales nació en Salamanca en 1976. Se licenció en Farmacia en la Universidad de Salamanca y cursó el Máster en Industria Farmacéutica y Parafarmacéutica del Centro de Estudios Superiores de la Industria Farmacéutica (CESIF) en Madrid. Allí trabajó durante varios años en los departamentos de Producción y Garantía de Calidad de un laboratorio farmacéutico. Actualmente ejerce como farmacéutico comunitario en Salamanca con especial dedicación a la formulación magistral, como es tradición en su familia desde hace tres generaciones. Es asesor científico en la junta directiva de la Asociación Española de Farmacéuticos Formulistas (AEFF) y colabora activamente con la Facultad de Farmacia de Salamanca. 

Íñigo Ansola. Humorista gráfico nacido en Laredo, Cantabria, el 1 de marzo de 1971. Publica desde 2008 ilustraciones de diverso tipo y una viñeta diaria sobre actualidad política y social en el periódico El Diario Montañés. 


 

 

 

 

 


jueves, 18 de julio de 2024

México: Megafarmacias, solución o..."maniobra política" y ahora...

The Super Pharmacy was intended to address Mexico’s struggle with rampant medicine shortages, a problem that saw a 950-percent increase in the number of appeals for shortages of medicines, from 220 in 2018 to 2,307 in 2021, according to the Zero Shortages access to medicines collective.

The lack of medicines has also been responsible for the deaths of otherwise healthy people, reports Associated Press, with examples such as anaesthesiologists drawing multiple doses of morphine from a single vial, leading to the contamination of vials and dozens of deaths.

Scandals surrounding medicines going out-of-date in warehouses while hospitals have trouble getting hold of them date back long before López Obrador became president in 2018 while Cofepris, Mexico’s regulatory agency, has long been plagued by accusations of corruption.

Fake medicines are yet another issue. Since medications are often unavailable at government hospitals, patients look to private drug stores where falsified medicines abound.

López Obrador has been looking to resolve drug shortages since he came into office and in 2019 launched a crusade against pharma companies, accusing them of charging exhorbitant prices and corruption. He then set about implementing his own logistics scheme for the acquisition and distribution of drugs, at first using the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) and Birmex. Yet shortages persisted and by the end of 2022 the government transferred the responsibility for delivering drugs to the Institute of Health for Welfare (Insabi).

Months later, legislators from the president’s MORENA party endorsed the extinction of Insabi and the responsibility for guaranteeing the supply of drugs went to the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS).



Y ahora llega Claudia Sheinbaum...

Claudia Sheinbaum, candidata a la Presidencia por la coalición “Sigamos Haciendo Historia”, presentó su proyecto en materia de salud denominado “República Sana”, con el cual propone convenios con farmacias particulares para entrega de medicamento gratuito, impulsar la producción de vacunas, terminar con la tramitología, así como implementar un programa de salud “casa por casa”.

 “Tenemos al mejor equipo en la definición de la política de salud, dos, ponemos en el centro a las personas, particularmente a los que menos tienen que son los que más sufren en la prevención y en la atención de la salud y tres vamos a tomar el sistema que se queda ahora con sus avances y vamos a impulsar el mejor sistema de salud pública para el bienestar”, aseguró la abanderada de los partidos Morena, PT y del PVEM.

El proyecto se compone de 10 ejes:

1. Gobernanza

2. Infraestructura y proceso de modernización del sistema salud

3. Cultura de la prevención y la salud

4. Consolidación del programa de gratuidad

5. La atención primaria

6. Primeros 1,000 días y envejecimiento

7. Política industrial del sector salud

8. Programa para un plan de estudios médicos alternativo

9. Programa para un plan de recursos en enfermería

10. Administración de servicios civil para la administración de la salud

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miércoles, 17 de julio de 2024

The renaissance of Alzheimer´s drug development


 

With 14 million people in Europe expected to suffer from Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia by 2030, the race is on to find a treatment to not only slow its course, but even prevent the development of the disease.

Historically, market authorisations for neurological diseases have had significantly lower rates of success compared with other indications.

Between 2000 to 2015, the likelihood of approval for neurological drugs that entered phase 1 trials (8.4%) was below the mean across all indications (9.6%) and far below haematology (26.1%) and infectious diseases (19.1%). When considering neurodegenerative diseases and specifically Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the rate is even lower with only four drugs: donepezil; galantamine; memantine, and rivastigmine approved between 1996 and 2020.

These drugs, however, only treat the disease’s symptoms rather than the causes. This has largely been due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms behind disease pathogenesis, with advances in AD happening at a significantly slower rate relative to other diseases. Despite being first discovered over 100 years ago, the complexity of the brain and limitations surrounding research/diagnostic methods and models have acted as barriers for AD drug development.

Recently, however, this trend has begun to shift. In 2021, while cancer drugs accounted for 30% of all new FDA approvals, neurology saw the second most approvals for the third time in a row (10%). 


The AD pipeline in particular saw major advancements with the (controversial) FDA accelerated approval of Biogen’s Aduhelm (aducanumab) in 2021, the first amyloid-targeting antibody for AD. The FDA approval of Eisai’s Leqembi (lecanemab) in July 2023 – with Lilly’s donanemab submitted but awaiting a currently delayed advisory committee meeting in 2024 (both of which also target amyloid) – continue to highlight the advancements happening in AD therapeutics.


A closer look at amyloid targeting treatments and beyond

Amyloid plaques, targeted by the aforementioned therapeutics, form from a protein known as amyloid-beta (Aβ), which is produced through the proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). The cleavage of APP has two different pathways known as the non-amyloidogenic and the amyloidogenic pathway. The non-amyloidogenic pathway results in soluble APP (sAPP) and a fragment known as P3 being released, with both being cleared from the brain. Alternatively, the amyloidogenic pathway, which is the main interest in AD, results in the generation of oligomeric Aβ40 or Aβ42, which are deposited within the brain and over time, through a process known as aggregation, form insoluble plaques.

.../... 

In the next 12 months, it is also likely there will be the approval of at least one more amyloid drug in Eli Lilly’s donanemab globally. In addition, potential approval of a subcutaneous formulation of Eisai’s Leqembi (currently requesting an FDA Fast Track designation) will offer patients greater accessibility due to not requiring access to a transfusion centre, with data showing increased efficacy and comparable safety to the current intravenous Leqembi.

Beyond 2024, the general consensus among HCPs and key opinion leaders active in the AD clinical space is that combination therapies with existing drugs for AD will start being developed, with therapeutic efficacy further enhanced by doing so. These could manifest in several ways including combining Aβ (Leqembi/donanemab) and TREM2-targeting drugs (AL002) or Aβ and tau (E2814)-targeting combination therapies.

Increased funding and greater public awareness of AD impact on people’s lives will continue to influence future innovation in these areas. The potential financial benefits are also certainly an incentive for drug developers with the Alzheimer’s market estimated to be $4.2bn in 2022 and expected to grow to $15.6bn by 2030. The financial burden on payers and governments has led to the recognition by regulatory bodies of an unmet need and is also contributing to advancements in AD therapeutics. With AD and other dementias responsible for a cost of $2.8trn in 2019 and expected to cost $4.7trn by 2023 globally, the race is truly on.

How the pipeline continues to develop may be dependent on the success of Leqembi, but as the first amyloid drug to be covered for reimbursement, it has paved the way for subsequent developments. While the actual clinical and commercial success of Leqembi is still to be determined, the market remains open, highlighting the requirement for further development.

 

Más...

domingo, 14 de julio de 2024

De Jornada MEDES traigo..."Cine y Pediatría 13"


 Un excelente y habitual regalo de su autor el Dr. Javier González de Dios que lo describe como...

"Cine y Pediatría llega a su volumen número 13. Y el número 13, a diferencia de lo que se piensa, es el número que representa la energía de la sabiduría, la fuerza y la espiritualidad que nos ayudan a vivir una vida plena y feliz… Porque el 13 es un número que es símbolo de paz y armonía, este volumen está dedicado a todos los niños y niñas de la guerra. “Nutrición, protección, estimulación y amor son necesidades básicas para una infancia digna. Dignidad que es violada en toda guerra y que no debiéramos permitir”. 

 El cine como herramienta de denuncia y como una forma de empatía para ponernos en el lugar de los otros. Como dice Asunción Sánchez Zaplana en su prólogo, gracias a esta colección sabemos que “el cine, como impulsor de creatividad y maestro de emociones, ayuda a comprender mejor al paciente”.

Gracias siempre Javier...

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Todo sobre "Cine y Pedriatría" en PHARMACOSERIAS